Similarity between men and women

Added: Elam Rittenberry - Date: 01.11.2021 13:44 - Views: 40493 - Clicks: 9030

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Gender is a critically important moderator of psychopathology. However, gender similarities and differences in body dysmorphic disorder BDD have received scant investigation. In this study, we examined gender similarities and differences in the broadest sample in which this Similarity between men and women has been examined.

Two hundred subjects with BDD recruited from diverse sources were assessed with a variety of standard measures. There were more similarities than differences between men and women, but many gender differences were found. The men were ificantly older and more likely to be single and living alone. Women also performed more repetitive and safety behaviors, and were more likely to camouflage and use certain camouflaging techniques, check mirrors, change their clothes, pick their skin, and have an eating disorder.

However, men had more severe BDD as assessed by the Psychiatric Status Rating Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and they had poorer Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores, were less likely to be working because of psychopathology, and were more likely to be receiving disability, including disability for BDD.

The clinical features of BDD in men and women have many similarities but also some interesting and important differences. These findings have implications for the detection and treatment of BDD. Understanding variations in disease expression in men and women is clinically important. In addition, gender differences in disease expression may reflect biological differences between the sexes as well as sociocultural factors such as different role expectations for men and women [ 3 ].

In epidemiological studies, differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in men and women have been consistently found eg, major depression is approximately twice as common in women, whereas alcohol and drug use disorders are approximately 2 to 5 times more common in men [ 3 ]. Research on gender differences in the symptom expression of psychiatric illness is still limited, and some findings are inconsistent; Similarity between men and women, some interesting differences have emerged [ 3 ].

For example, women are more likely than men to experience the depressed pole of bipolar illness, less likely to have only manic episodes, and more likely to have rapid cycling [ 4 — 6 ]. Women with schizophrenia appear more likely than men to experience affective symptoms in addition to psychotic symptoms [ 78 ]. Despite the growing literature Similarity between men and women gender similarities and differences in a variety of psychiatric disorders, this important aspect of body dysmorphic disorder BDD has received scant empirical attention, even though BDD is relatively common and severe [ 910 ].

To our knowledge, only 2 studies have examined this topic in BDD. One study, from the United States, contained subjects 93 women and 95 men from a BDD specialty program [ 11 ]; the other study, from Italy, contained 58 subjects 24 women and 34 men who were consecutively enrolled as outpatients and had a chief complaint of BDD symptoms [ 12 ]. Both studies found far more gender similarities than differences in terms of most demographic characteristics, age at BDD onset, repetitive and safety behaviors, comorbidity, functional impairment, and treatment received. As shown in Table 1these 2 studies also found more gender similarities than differences in terms of body areas of concern.

The 2 studies also concurred on a few gender differences: both found that men were more likely than women to be preoccupied with their genitals, and that women were more likely to have comorbid bulimia nervosa as well as any eating disorder in the US study. However, most other gender differences were discrepant between the 2 studies. For example, as shown in italics in Table 1 discrepant across the 2 studies are highlighted with italicsin the US study, concerns about excessive body hair were more common in women, whereas in the Italian study, they were more common in men.

In the US study, men were more likely to be single, whereas in the Italian study, men were more likely to have bipolar disorder and women were more likely to check mirrors, use camouflage, and have comorbid panic disorder. The US study found some additional gender differences that were not examined in the Italian study: men were more likely to camouflage with a hat and have a substance use disorder, whereas women were more likely to camouflage with their hand or makeup, pick their skin, and receive nonpsychiatric medical treatment or surgery for their perceived appearance flaws.

Body areas of concern for women and men with BDD in 2 ly published studies [ 1112 ]. M indicates male; F, Female. Data captured in italics indicate that the US and Italian studies had discrepant findings. The study inclusion and exclusion criteria see below were very broad. Unlike the 2 studies, one third of subjects were not currently seeking or receiving mental health treatment, and most treatment was obtained in nonspecialty settings.

Thus, findings from the present study may be more generalizable than those from the studies. In this study, we assessed some ly unexamined gender similarities and differences, including scores on depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder OCDand social phobia scales; age at onset of subclinical BDD; prevalence of certain BDD behaviors and comorbid disorders; and scores on measures of psychosocial functioning and quality of life.

We hypothesized, consistent with both of the 2 studies, that men and women would be similar in terms of most variables, but that a greater proportion of men would be concerned with their genitals, and a greater proportion of women would have a comorbid eating disorder. The study interviewers were blind to these hypotheses. We were also interested in whether other differences found in either the Italian or US study would be replicated in the present study.

Two hundred individuals participated in a prospective study of the course of BDD. This report includes only data from the intake baseline assessment and therefore contains current and retrospective data. Additional study inclusion criteria were 12 years or older and able to be interviewed in person. The only exclusion criterion was the presence of an organic mental disorder. Subjects were obtained from diverse sources: mental health professionals Of the sample, The remaining However, subjects in full or partial remission from BDD at the time of the intake interview are excluded from analyses of current symptom severity and functioning, as detailed below.

All intake interviews were conducted in person by experienced clinical interviewers. Nearly all interviews were conducted by the same 2 interviewers who were closely supervised by the first author. The interviewers received careful and rigorous training, as in similar longitudinal studies eg, Ref [ 14 ]. This training included discussing videotapes, conducting mock interviews with experienced interviewers, and being closely supervised during training sessions and initial interviews.

All interviews were thoroughly edited both clinically and clerically by senior staff, including the first author. Scale items assess preoccupation and negative evaluation of appearance, self-consciousness and embarrassment, excessive importance given to appearance in self-evaluation, avoidance of activities, and body camouflaging and checking. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are disorder-specific, reliable, and valid global ratings of disorder severity used in numerous longitudinal studies [ 18 — 20 ].

The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale BABS [ 21 ] assessed the delusionality insight of appearance beliefs eg, that the person looks disfigured during the past week; this is a reliable and valid 7-item, semistructured, interviewer-administered measure that provides a dimensional score of delusionality ranging from 0 to 24 and also categorizes individuals as delusional or nondelusional using an empirically derived cutpoint.

A total score of 18 plus complete conviction qualifies a subject as delusional. The item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [ 22 ] assessed depressive symptoms scores range from 0 to On all of the scales mentioned, higher scores indicate greater severity. The edition used in this study contains screening questions about psychotic symptoms but does not diagnose individual psychotic disorders. Except for eating disorders, NOS diagnoses were not made because of their subjective nature. Several disorders that are not included in the SCID were assessed using SCID-like modules based on DSM-IV criteria tic disorder, trichotillomania, and olfactory reference syndrome, a distressing or impairing preoccupation that one emits a foul body odor.

Current employment status excluding employed subjects who were primarily students was assessed with the Hollingshead Occupational Index 2-factor version, scores range from 1 to 7 [ 26 ]. Current functioning was assessed with the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool LIFE-RIFT [ 27 ], a reliable and valid semistructured measure of impairment in the domains of work, school, household duties, recreation, relationships with family and friends, and satisfaction.

Higher scores reflect poorer functioning. Because the total score does not reflect inability to be employed or to be in school because of psychopathology, we report these percentages separately. The Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report SAS-SR [ 28 ] is a item reliable, valid, and widely used self-report measure of current social functioning in the domains of work, social and leisure, extended family, primary relationship, parental, and family unit.

A higher total score indicates poorer social functioning. Scores range from 1 towith lower scores denoting greater severity. Current mental health—related quality of life was assessed with 3 subscales of the Similarity between men and women Outcomes Study Item Short-Form Health Survey SF [ 29 ], a reliable, valid, and widely used self-report measure of mental dimensions of health status and health-related quality of life.

Subscale scores range from 0 towith lower scores indicating poorer quality of life. The Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Q-LES-Q [ 30 ] is a reliable, valid, and widely used measure of current quality of life in 8 domains: general activities, physical health, emotional well-being, household, leisure, social, work, and school.

Lower scores indicate poorer quality of life. Means, standard deviations, and frequencies were calculated. The female subjects were compared with the 63 male subjects with regard to demographic features, clinical characteristics of BDD, symptom severity, suicidality, functioning and quality of life, treatment history, and comorbidity. Because the women were ificantly younger than the men To provide more meaningful for measures of current symptom severity eg, BDD, depressive, or OCD symptomswe included only the subjects who met the full criteria for BDD in the past week and the current criteria for the relevant disorder eg, major depression or OCD in those analyses.

Analyses of current functioning and quality of life included only subjects with current BDD. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to examine relationships between selected variables. Because this study is largely exploratory, we did not correct for multiple comparisons. In addition, it has been noted that the Bonferroni correction tends to be overly conservative [ 31 ], and that it can be problematic to make adjustments for multiple comparisons [ 32 ].

Nonetheless, there is a possible inflation of type I error rates, and some findings, particularly those of only modest ificance, may reflect chance associations. Compared with the women, the men were ificantly older, more likely to be single, and more likely to be living alone Table 2. Women were currently excessively concerned with a greater of body areas Table 3.

Similarity between men and women

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