The effects of methadone

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This study aimed to describe the nature and structure of drugdependents' experiences and the physical effects of MMT. The present study is a qualitative and a phenomenology study on 32clients referred to methadone clinics in the city of Kerman in Encoded concepts were categorized in general groups of effectiveness ongeneral health, sleep, appetite and weight, sexual desire, appearance andother effects. These six showed the main structure of experienceand physical effects of MMT. The clients' viewpoints towards this treatment had a role in theirexperience expression and feelings, but MMT had an overall positivephysical effect on the clients.

Methadone maintenance treatment MMT is a treatment used for drug dependents. Methadone is a weak agonist of narcotics with a long half life produced in the laboratory and prescribed The effects of methadone a treatment for dependency to narcotics. Methadone reduces the symptoms of narcotic withdrawal and also decreases the euphoric effects of other narcotics.

This study investigated the effectiveness of MMT on the physical health of clients from their own point of view. The study and review of evidence and findings show that MMT is effective in improving physical and psychological health. From the standpoint of clients also, there are various successes in this treatment, such as reducing the incidence of AIDS, hepatitis C and other blood diseases, improvement of family life, finding jobs and keeping them and having more support from their children.

The of heroin abusers in Iran has been increasing and nowadays it is estimated to be aboutThe nature of heroin dependency, due to the severity of euphoric and withdrawal symptoms, makes it impossible for the dependents to work.

Since most abusers are young and in the best age of efficiency, it is not difficult to calculate the lack of such human resources due to drug abuse especially heroin and the harms it does to the society by excluding such people from the productive cycle. This is a qualitative study of phenomenology, which is a study of life experiences by interviews and descriptions of people who live the experience.

In fact, phenomenology is the study of life experiences. The study sample was purposive and the samples were selected from the clients referred to methadone clinics in the city of Kerman from October to March and were interviewed. In this sampling, the researcher purposively goes to those who have the exact necessary data. In this study, clients who were referred to methadone clinics and were willing to explain their experiences and feelings about the physical effects of MMT were selected.

The size of the sample was determined based on the data needed. The sample size happened to be 32 and there was no more data needed to continue. To collect the data, deep open and semi-structured interviews were used. The approximate length of the interviews was half an hour to one hour, more or less, based on the participant's state. Informed consent, permission to record interviews, anonymity, data confidentiality, the right to quit at any time and ethical regulations were all considered through the interviews.

The ethic committee of the Neuroscience Research Center approved the study. The interviews were all scheduled and performed face to face in a private room in the methadone clinics to assure the comfort of interviewees in expressing themselves, 9 and the quality of sound recording. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed and analyzed. In the final step, a thorough description of the study phenomenon was prepared.

Data reliability and credibility were evaluated. To increase the reliability of data, conformability, allocation of sufficient time, good communication, prolonged engagement and persistent observation, data collection method triangulation, time triangulation, peer check, peer debriefing, member check, searching for opposite evidences and negative case analysis were used. To increase the credibility and subjectivity of the data, and extracted codes, they were referred to a scholar of qualitative research, who approved all the findings.

Analyzing the transcriptions of the clients about the physical effects of methadone maintenance treatment, six main themes were extracted: Table 3. The list of extracted codes in the interviews of clients who were referred to Kerman methadone clinics. In this study, MMT was found effective in improving the physical dimensions of the quality of life and most clients mentioned that they were generally feeling healthier.

The effects of methadone clean of drugs and not being addicted, feeling healthy in all dimensions of life were some of the The effects of methadone mentioned by clients. Things go right; everything follows in the right way. These effects were even faster and better than Buprenorphine treatment. A study in Australia on clients using MMT and Buprenorphine treatment showed reduction in the mortality rate by both treatments and there was no difference between the reduction rate of the two treatments, except the elderly who showed better with Buprenorphine treatment.

The positive effect on sleep was reported by some clients as more comfortable sleep, going to bed earlier and waking up earlier in the morning, higher quality of sleep, not being sleepy during the day. In one case, horrible nightmares about drugs and selling narcotics was also reported. Now, it feels like I have lost my parents; I dream of opium all the time. For example, clients who thought methadone was free of morphine and believed that their body was clean from morphine and reported a positive effect on their body.

However, most others who complained about negative effects of methadone on their sleep, were suffering from other psychiatric disorders such as depression and personality disorders Axis II and most of these participants were taking Benzodiazepines to improve their sleep quality, which could lead to other problems, resistance to Benzodiazepines and withdrawal symptoms in case of stopping them. When I The effects of methadone an addict, I did not even take one pill. Improvement of appetite and gaining weight were the other effects of MMT in some clients. Moreover, in some clients, change in diet was also mentioned.

One day I even had two liters of ice cream. In a study in Poland, two months after starting treatment, the daily consumption of lipid fats, saturated fats and essential fatty acids, cholesterol, dietary fiber and certain minerals and vitamins was decreased, but 9 months after the beginning of the treatment their consumption was increased. However, The effects of methadone other clients mentioned that they lost their appetite after they started the treatment.

These cases had also psychiatric co-morbidities including depression and personality disorders. In most of these clients abuse of some drugs such as cyproheptadine, dexamethasone and prednisolone were seen. Therefore, lack of attention to their appetite problems and lack of treatment for psychiatric co-morbidities had also caused increase of dependency to drugs in such patients. Kolarzyk et al study the nutritional condition of those undergoing MMT in the beginning of treatment and 4 years after. They found an average weight loss of 1. In men, the were opposite and there was a mean 8.

Increase of arm circumference and muscle arm circumference and skin fat folds were associated with the decrease of body fluid and lean body mass. In another study, four years after MMT, women showed very low amounts of vitamin B1 and iron compared with the standard amount, while men showed low amounts of vitamins B1, B2 and C, niacin, and minerals such as calcium and magnesium and zinc.

In addition, after four years of MMT, women showed increase in energy consumption, vitamins, minerals and main nutrition and men showed decrease in energy consumption, protein and carbohydrates. However, men were reported to have an increased consumption of fat especially unsaturated fatty acids. Lack of sexual desire was among the problems mentioned in most MMT clients.

In single men decrease in sexual desire and erection and sexual activities was reported. Screening of men undergoing MMT for sexual disorders is recommended. Changes in appearance such as a better look, a brighter face after treatment were mentioned by clients. In clients who thought methadone was a combination of opium and heroin or chemicals complained about their look and no improvement in their appearance was reported. Elimination of physical pain and lack of drug deprivation symptoms, which were usual during drug consumption, was another effect of methadone.

Constipation is a problem that some clients reported to have after methadone consumption and therefore, these clients were consuming laxative during treatment. Creating skin spots in the period of treatment was mentioned by some clients. In a study on clients receiving methadone in Australia, the incidence of skin lesion was more seen in those who used street syrups of methadone, or those who forgot to take the right amount of their medicine or used Benzodiazepines, or recieved a high dosage of methadone syrup or were injecting methadone syrup.

Furthermore, when a skin lesion became prevalent among a group of study subjects, the glass bottles of the distributed syrups were collected and following that the skin lesion subsided. These syrups were tested which were not polluted. So, it was guessed that the compounds of some syrups may be involved in the incidence of skin problems prevalent in people consuming them.

Swollen body and stomach was among complains of some clients. Being tired and sedentary and feeling sick were other problems mentioned. Clients who thought methadone has side effects mentioned such complaints more than others. Jerk movment, frequent urination, dark urine and urinary retention, dizziness, headache and body pain were other physical problems mentioned by MMT clients. The interesting point is that feelings and experiences of the clients were dependent on their view and attitude towards this treatment.

For example, those clients who thought methadone had no morphine said that all symptoms and experiences they had during addiction have all changed because their body was clean of morphine and they reported more positive effects. Vice versa, clients who thought methadone was similar to other drugs not only mentioned few positive effects for it, but also reported more complications compared to others.

In addition, clients who had grown up with addiction since childhood, or in other words were children of addiction, or entered the treatment being obliged by military or others, were not satisfied by the treatment and were always worried about the decrease of methadone effect and frequently requested an increase in the dosage.

Conflicts of Interest. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Addict Health v. Addict Health. Find articles by Ali Kheradmand. Find articles by Nabi Banazadeh. Find articles by Heidarali Abedi. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. : moc. Received Apr 12; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Methods The present study is a qualitative and a phenomenology study on 32clients referred to methadone clinics in the city of Kerman in Findings Encoded concepts were categorized in general groups of effectiveness ongeneral health, sleep, appetite and weight, sexual desire, appearance andother effects.

Conclusion The clients' viewpoints towards this treatment had a role in theirexperience expression and feelings, but MMT had an overall positivephysical effect on the clients. Keywords: Methadone maintenance treatment, Physical effects. Introduction Methadone maintenance treatment MMT is a treatment used for drug dependents. Methods This is a qualitative study of phenomenology, which is a study of life experiences by interviews and descriptions of people who live the experience.

Analyzing the transcriptions of the clients about the physical effects of methadone maintenance treatment, six main themes were extracted: Table 3 Table 1 Demographic features of the clients who were referred to Kerman methadone clinics. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Treatment condition of the clients who were referred to Kerman methadone clinics. Table 3 The list of extracted codes in the interviews of clients who were referred to Kerman methadone clinics.

Discussion 1. Effect on physical health In this study, MMT was found effective in improving the physical dimensions of the quality of life and most clients mentioned that they were generally feeling healthier. Impact on sleep The positive effect on sleep was reported by some clients as more comfortable sleep, going to bed earlier and waking up earlier in the morning, higher quality of sleep, not being sleepy during the day.

Effect on appetite and weight Improvement of appetite and gaining weight The effects of methadone the other effects of MMT in some clients. Effect on sexual functioning Lack of sexual desire was among the problems mentioned in most MMT clients. Impact on appearance Changes in appearance such as a better look, a brighter face after treatment were mentioned by clients. Other effects A. Effect on pain Elimination of physical pain and lack of drug deprivation symptoms, which were usual during drug consumption, was another effect of methadone.

Constipation Constipation is a problem that some clients reported to have after methadone consumption and therefore, these clients were consuming laxative during treatment. Skin lesions Creating skin spots in the period of treatment was mentioned by some clients. Edema of organs and body Swollen body and stomach was among complains of some clients. Feeling tired and being sedentary Being tired and sedentary and feeling sick were other problems mentioned.

Miscellaneous Jerk movment, frequent urination, dark urine and urinary retention, dizziness, headache and body pain were other physical problems mentioned by MMT clients. Conclusion The interesting point is that feelings and experiences of the clients were dependent on their view and attitude towards this treatment. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest The Authors have no conflict of interest.

The effects of methadone

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Methadone, Oral Tablet